Telehealth Outcomes and Impact on Care Delivery: A Review of Evidence

Adara Citron
Margaret Fix
Garen Corbett
Janet Coffman
November 2023


Report summarizes the evidence on outcomes for patients participating in various telehealth delivered services, including different modalities, such as telephone and video.


Use of telehealth services grew substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and many new studies have evaluated the impact of this growth in telehealth services on health care outcomes. This report summarized more than 80 studies (including systematic reviews) published from 2021 to 2022 and focused on the impact of telehealth services.


This report summarizes the large body of evidence on the impact of telehealth in treating specific conditions and the impact of specific telehealth modalities. Modalities include live video; telephone; email, text, and chat; e-visits; store-and-forward; and hybrid care. Notably, few studies addressed how telehealth compares with in-person care among specific patient demographic groups. The report includes a technical supplement that describes studies related to telehealth outcomes by modality and health conditions; and on multimodality and cross-modality studies.


Policymakers and payers can use this report to better understand the effectiveness of telehealth services as compared to in-person care. Care providers can apply these findings to inform practice guidelines for using telehealth.

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