Guide to Evidence for Health-Related Social Needs Interventions: 2022 Update

Douglas McCarthy
Corinne Lewis
Celli Horstman
Alexandra Bryan
Tanya Shah
Implementation Tool
September 2022


Summarizes evidence on costs of health-related social needs interventions and their impact on utilization and cost of care to inform ROI Calculator users.


The Return on Investment (ROI) Calculator for Partnerships to Address the Social Determinants of Health is a tool that can help health care and community-based organizations establish sustainable financial arrangements to fund social needs interventions that will improve care for adults with complex health and social needs. This guide summarizes the most recent evidence available on these interventions for organizations to input into the ROI calculator when they do not have access to their own relevant data. A companion user guide for applying this evidence is available.

About this Tool

This evidence guide summarizes peer-reviewed and gray literature on the costs of health-related social needs interventions and/or their impact on health care utilization and cost of care. The interventions include housing, home modifications, nutrition, transportation, care management, counseling, and social isolation and loneliness. All resources are given an evidence grade based on study method.


Users of this guide can explore these resources and select studies that most closely match the aims, population, and context of their interventions to inform selection of input variables for the ROI Calculator.

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